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requests+BeautifulSoup详解

时间:2018-06-26 01:13:38      阅读:177      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

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简介

Python标准库中提供了:urllib、urllib2、httplib等模块以供Http请求,但是,它的 API 太渣了。它是为另一个时代、另一个互联网所创建的。它需要巨量的工作,甚至包括各种方法覆盖,来完成最简单的任务。

Requests 是使用 Apache2 Licensed 许可证的 基于Python开发的HTTP 库,其在Python内置模块的基础上进行了高度的封装,从而使得Pythoner进行网络请求时,变得美好了许多,使用Requests可以轻而易举的完成浏览器可有的任何操作。

请求的方法

1、GET请求

# 1、无参数实例
 
import requests
 
ret = requests.get(‘https://github.com/timeline.json‘)
 
print ret.url
print ret.text
 
 
 
# 2、有参数实例
 
import requests
 
payload = {‘key1‘: ‘value1‘, ‘key2‘: ‘value2‘}
ret = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/get", params=payload)
 
print ret.url
print ret.text

2、POST请求

# 1、基本POST实例
 
import requests
 
payload = {‘key1‘: ‘value1‘, ‘key2‘: ‘value2‘}
ret = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", data=payload)
 
print ret.text
 
 
# 2、发送请求头和数据实例
 
import requests
import json
 
url = ‘https://api.github.com/some/endpoint‘
payload = {‘some‘: ‘data‘}
headers = {‘content-type‘: ‘application/json‘}
 
ret = requests.post(url, data=json.dumps(payload), headers=headers)
 
print ret.text
print ret.cookies

3、其他请求

requests.get(url, params=None, **kwargs)
requests.post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.head(url, **kwargs)
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.options(url, **kwargs)
 
# 以上方法均是在此方法的基础上构建
requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)

请求的参数

常见参数

1  url
2  headers
3  cookies
4  params
5  data,传请求体
        
        requests.post(
            ...,
            data={‘user‘:‘alex‘,‘pwd‘:‘123‘}
        )
        
        GET /index http1.1\r\nhost:c1.com\r\n\r\nuser=alex&pwd=123
        
6  json,传请求体
        requests.post(
            ...,
            json={‘user‘:‘alex‘,‘pwd‘:‘123‘}
        )
        
        GET /index http1.1\r\nhost:c1.com\r\nContent-Type:application/json\r\n\r\n{"user":"alex","pwd":123}
7 代理 proxies
    # 无验证
        proxie_dict = {
            "http": "61.172.249.96:80",
            "https": "http://61.185.219.126:3128",
        }
        ret = requests.get("https://www.proxy360.cn/Proxy", proxies=proxie_dict)
        
    
    # 验证代理
        from requests.auth import HTTPProxyAuth
        
        proxyDict = {
            ‘http‘: ‘77.75.105.165‘,
            ‘https‘: ‘77.75.106.165‘
        }
        auth = HTTPProxyAuth(‘用户名‘, ‘密码‘)
        
        r = requests.get("http://www.google.com",data={‘xxx‘:‘ffff‘} proxies=proxyDict, auth=auth)
        print(r.text)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8 文件上传 files
    # 发送文件
        file_dict = {
            ‘f1‘: open(‘xxxx.log‘, ‘rb‘)
        }
        requests.request(
            method=‘POST‘,
            url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
            files=file_dict
        )
        
9 认证 auth

    内部:
        用户名和密码,用户和密码加密,放在请求头中传给后台。
        
            - "用户:密码"
            - base64("用户:密码")
            - "Basic base64("用户|密码")"
            - 请求头:
                Authorization: "basic base64("用户|密码")"
        
    from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth, HTTPDigestAuth

    ret = requests.get(‘https://api.github.com/user‘, auth=HTTPBasicAuth(‘wupeiqi‘, ‘sdfasdfasdf‘))
    print(ret.text)
    
10 超时 timeout 
    # ret = requests.get(‘http://google.com/‘, timeout=1)
    # print(ret)

    # ret = requests.get(‘http://google.com/‘, timeout=(5, 1))
    # print(ret)
    
11 允许重定向  allow_redirects
    ret = requests.get(‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘, allow_redirects=False)
    print(ret.text)
    
12 大文件下载 stream
    from contextlib import closing
    with closing(requests.get(‘http://httpbin.org/get‘, stream=True)) as r1:
    # 在此处理响应。
    for i in r1.iter_content():
        print(i)
        
13 证书 cert
    - 百度、腾讯 => 不用携带证书(系统帮你做了)
    - 自定义证书
        requests.get(‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘, cert="xxxx/xxx/xxx.pem")
        requests.get(‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘, cert=("xxxx/xxx/xxx.pem","xxx.xxx.xx.key"))
14 确认 verify =False 

  

更多参数

技术分享图片
def request(method, url, **kwargs):
    """Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.

    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``‘name‘: file-like-objects`` (or ``{‘name‘: file-tuple}``) for multipart encoding upload.
        ``file-tuple`` can be a 2-tuple ``(‘filename‘, fileobj)``, 3-tuple ``(‘filename‘, fileobj, ‘content_type‘)``
        or a 4-tuple ``(‘filename‘, fileobj, ‘content_type‘, custom_headers)``, where ``‘content-type‘`` is a string
        defining the content type of the given file and ``custom_headers`` a dict-like object containing additional headers
        to add for the file.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) whether the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert‘, ‘key‘) pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response

    Usage::

      >>> import requests
      >>> req = requests.request(‘GET‘, ‘http://httpbin.org/get‘)
      <Response [200]>
    """
参数列表

 

技术分享图片
def param_method_url():
    # requests.request(method=‘get‘, url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘)
    # requests.request(method=‘post‘, url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘)
    pass


def param_param():
    # - 可以是字典
    # - 可以是字符串
    # - 可以是字节(ascii编码以内)

    # requests.request(method=‘get‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # params={‘k1‘: ‘v1‘, ‘k2‘: ‘水电费‘})

    # requests.request(method=‘get‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # params="k1=v1&k2=水电费&k3=v3&k3=vv3")

    # requests.request(method=‘get‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # params=bytes("k1=v1&k2=k2&k3=v3&k3=vv3", encoding=‘utf8‘))

    # 错误
    # requests.request(method=‘get‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # params=bytes("k1=v1&k2=水电费&k3=v3&k3=vv3", encoding=‘utf8‘))
    pass


def param_data():
    # 可以是字典
    # 可以是字符串
    # 可以是字节
    # 可以是文件对象

    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # data={‘k1‘: ‘v1‘, ‘k2‘: ‘水电费‘})

    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # data="k1=v1; k2=v2; k3=v3; k3=v4"
    # )

    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # data="k1=v1;k2=v2;k3=v3;k3=v4",
    # headers={‘Content-Type‘: ‘application/x-www-form-urlencoded‘}
    # )

    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # data=open(‘data_file.py‘, mode=‘r‘, encoding=‘utf-8‘), # 文件内容是:k1=v1;k2=v2;k3=v3;k3=v4
    # headers={‘Content-Type‘: ‘application/x-www-form-urlencoded‘}
    # )
    pass


def param_json():
    # 将json中对应的数据进行序列化成一个字符串,json.dumps(...)
    # 然后发送到服务器端的body中,并且Content-Type是 {‘Content-Type‘: ‘application/json‘}
    requests.request(method=POST,
                     url=http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/,
                     json={k1: v1, k2: 水电费})


def param_headers():
    # 发送请求头到服务器端
    requests.request(method=POST,
                     url=http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/,
                     json={k1: v1, k2: 水电费},
                     headers={Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded}
                     )


def param_cookies():
    # 发送Cookie到服务器端
    requests.request(method=POST,
                     url=http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/,
                     data={k1: v1, k2: v2},
                     cookies={cook1: value1},
                     )
    # 也可以使用CookieJar(字典形式就是在此基础上封装)
    from http.cookiejar import CookieJar
    from http.cookiejar import Cookie

    obj = CookieJar()
    obj.set_cookie(Cookie(version=0, name=c1, value=v1, port=None, domain=‘‘, path=/, secure=False, expires=None,
                          discard=True, comment=None, comment_url=None, rest={HttpOnly: None}, rfc2109=False,
                          port_specified=False, domain_specified=False, domain_initial_dot=False, path_specified=False)
                   )
    requests.request(method=POST,
                     url=http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/,
                     data={k1: v1, k2: v2},
                     cookies=obj)


def param_files():
    # 发送文件
    # file_dict = {
    # ‘f1‘: open(‘readme‘, ‘rb‘)
    # }
    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    # ‘f1‘: (‘test.txt‘, open(‘readme‘, ‘rb‘))
    # }
    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    # ‘f1‘: (‘test.txt‘, "hahsfaksfa9kasdjflaksdjf")
    # }
    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    # url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    # files=file_dict)

    # 发送文件,定制文件名
    # file_dict = {
    #     ‘f1‘: (‘test.txt‘, "hahsfaksfa9kasdjflaksdjf", ‘application/text‘, {‘k1‘: ‘0‘})
    # }
    # requests.request(method=‘POST‘,
    #                  url=‘http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/‘,
    #                  files=file_dict)

    pass


def param_auth():
    from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth, HTTPDigestAuth

    ret = requests.get(https://api.github.com/user, auth=HTTPBasicAuth(wupeiqi, sdfasdfasdf))
    print(ret.text)

    # ret = requests.get(‘http://192.168.1.1‘,
    # auth=HTTPBasicAuth(‘admin‘, ‘admin‘))
    # ret.encoding = ‘gbk‘
    # print(ret.text)

    # ret = requests.get(‘http://httpbin.org/digest-auth/auth/user/pass‘, auth=HTTPDigestAuth(‘user‘, ‘pass‘))
    # print(ret)
    #


def param_timeout():
    # ret = requests.get(‘http://google.com/‘, timeout=1)
    # print(ret)

    # ret = requests.get(‘http://google.com/‘, timeout=(5, 1))
    # print(ret)
    pass


def param_allow_redirects():
    ret = requests.get(http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/, allow_redirects=False)
    print(ret.text)


def param_proxies():
    # proxies = {
    # "http": "61.172.249.96:80",
    # "https": "http://61.185.219.126:3128",
    # }

    # proxies = {‘http://10.20.1.128‘: ‘http://10.10.1.10:5323‘}

    # ret = requests.get("http://www.proxy360.cn/Proxy", proxies=proxies)
    # print(ret.headers)


    # from requests.auth import HTTPProxyAuth
    #
    # proxyDict = {
    # ‘http‘: ‘77.75.105.165‘,
    # ‘https‘: ‘77.75.105.165‘
    # }
    # auth = HTTPProxyAuth(‘username‘, ‘mypassword‘)
    #
    # r = requests.get("http://www.google.com", proxies=proxyDict, auth=auth)
    # print(r.text)

    pass


def param_stream():
    ret = requests.get(http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/, stream=True)
    print(ret.content)
    ret.close()

    # from contextlib import closing
    # with closing(requests.get(‘http://httpbin.org/get‘, stream=True)) as r:
    # # 在此处理响应。
    # for i in r.iter_content():
    # print(i)


def requests_session():
    import requests

    session = requests.Session()

    ### 1、首先登陆任何页面,获取cookie

    i1 = session.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")

    ### 2、用户登陆,携带上一次的cookie,后台对cookie中的 gpsd 进行授权
    i2 = session.post(
        url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
        data={
            phone: "8615131255089",
            password: "xxxxxx",
            oneMonth: ""
        }
    )

    i3 = session.post(
        url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589623",
    )
    print(i3.text)
参数示例

 

官方文档:http://cn.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/user/quickstart.html#id4

BeautifulSoup

BeautifulSoup是一个模块,该模块用于接收一个HTML或XML字符串,然后将其进行格式化,之后遍可以使用他提供的方法进行快速查找指定元素,从而使得在HTML或XML中查找指定元素变得简单。

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

html_doc = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse‘s story</title></head>
<body>
asdf
    <div class="title">
        <b>The Dormouse‘s story总共</b>
        <h1>f</h1>
    </div>
<div class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
    <a  class="sister0" id="link1">Els<span>f</span>ie</a>,
    <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
    <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</div>
ad<br/>sf
<p class="story">...</p>
</body>
</html>
"""

soup = BeautifulSoup(html_doc, features="lxml")
# 找到第一个a标签
tag1 = soup.find(name=‘a‘)
# 找到所有的a标签
tag2 = soup.find_all(name=‘a‘)
# 找到id=link2的标签
tag3 = soup.select(‘#link2‘)

安装:

pip3 install beautifulsoup4

使用示例:

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

html_doc = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse‘s story</title></head>
<body>
    ...
</body>
</html>
"""

soup = BeautifulSoup(html_doc, features="lxml")

1. name,标签名称

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# name = tag.name # 获取
# print(name)
# tag.name = ‘span‘ # 设置
# print(soup)

2. attr,标签属性

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# attrs = tag.attrs    # 获取
# print(attrs)
# tag.attrs = {‘ik‘:123} # 设置
# tag.attrs[‘id‘] = ‘iiiii‘ # 设置
# print(soup)

3. children,所有子标签

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = body.children

4. children,所有子子孙孙标签

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = body.descendants

5. clear,将标签的所有子标签全部清空(保留标签名)

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# tag.clear()
# print(soup)

6. decompose,递归的删除所有的标签

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# body.decompose()
# print(soup)

7. extract,递归的删除所有的标签,并获取删除的标签

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = body.extract()
# print(soup)

8. decode,转换为字符串(含当前标签);decode_contents(不含当前标签)

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = body.decode()
# v = body.decode_contents()
# print(v)

9. encode,转换为字节(含当前标签);encode_contents(不含当前标签)

# body = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = body.encode()
# v = body.encode_contents()
# print(v)

10. find,获取匹配的第一个标签

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# print(tag)
# tag = soup.find(name=‘a‘, attrs={‘class‘: ‘sister‘}, recursive=True, text=‘Lacie‘)
# tag = soup.find(name=‘a‘, class_=‘sister‘, recursive=True, text=‘Lacie‘)
# print(tag)

11. find_all,获取匹配的所有标签

# tags = soup.find_all(‘a‘)
# print(tags)

# tags = soup.find_all(‘a‘,limit=1)
# print(tags)

# tags = soup.find_all(name=‘a‘, attrs={‘class‘: ‘sister‘}, recursive=True, text=‘Lacie‘)
# # tags = soup.find(name=‘a‘, class_=‘sister‘, recursive=True, text=‘Lacie‘)
# print(tags)


# ####### 列表 #######
# v = soup.find_all(name=[‘a‘,‘div‘])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(class_=[‘sister0‘, ‘sister‘])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(text=[‘Tillie‘])
# print(v, type(v[0]))


# v = soup.find_all(id=[‘link1‘,‘link2‘])
# print(v)

# v = soup.find_all(href=[‘link1‘,‘link2‘])
# print(v)

# ####### 正则 #######
import re
# rep = re.compile(‘p‘)
# rep = re.compile(‘^p‘)
# v = soup.find_all(name=rep)
# print(v)

# rep = re.compile(‘sister.*‘)
# v = soup.find_all(class_=rep)
# print(v)

# rep = re.compile(‘http://www.oldboy.com/static/.*‘)
# v = soup.find_all(href=rep)
# print(v)

# ####### 方法筛选 #######
# def func(tag):
# return tag.has_attr(‘class‘) and tag.has_attr(‘id‘)
# v = soup.find_all(name=func)
# print(v)


# ## get,获取标签属性
# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.get(‘id‘)
# print(v)

12. has_attr,检查标签是否具有该属性

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.has_attr(‘id‘)
# print(v)

13. get_text,获取标签内部文本内容

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.get_text(‘id‘)
# print(v)

14. index,检查标签在某标签中的索引位置

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = tag.index(tag.find(‘div‘))
# print(v)

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# for i,v in enumerate(tag):
# print(i,v)

15. is_empty_element,是否是空标签(是否可以是空)或者自闭合标签,

     判断是否是如下标签:‘br‘ , ‘hr‘, ‘input‘, ‘img‘, ‘meta‘,‘spacer‘, ‘link‘, ‘frame‘, ‘base‘

# tag = soup.find(‘br‘)
# v = tag.is_empty_element
# print(v)

16. 当前的关联标签

# soup.next
# soup.next_element
# soup.next_elements
# soup.next_sibling
# soup.next_siblings

#
# tag.previous
# tag.previous_element
# tag.previous_elements
# tag.previous_sibling
# tag.previous_siblings

#
# tag.parent
# tag.parents

17. 查找某标签的关联标签

# tag.find_next(...)
# tag.find_all_next(...)
# tag.find_next_sibling(...)
# tag.find_next_siblings(...)

# tag.find_previous(...)
# tag.find_all_previous(...)
# tag.find_previous_sibling(...)
# tag.find_previous_siblings(...)

# tag.find_parent(...)
# tag.find_parents(...)

# 参数同find_all

18. select,select_one, CSS选择器

soup.select("title")

soup.select("p nth-of-type(3)")

soup.select("body a")

soup.select("html head title")

tag = soup.select("span,a")

soup.select("head > title")

soup.select("p > a")

soup.select("p > a:nth-of-type(2)")

soup.select("p > #link1")

soup.select("body > a")

soup.select("#link1 ~ .sister")

soup.select("#link1 + .sister")

soup.select(".sister")

soup.select("[class~=sister]")

soup.select("#link1")

soup.select("a#link2")

soup.select(‘a[href]‘)

soup.select(‘a[href="http://example.com/elsie"]‘)

soup.select(‘a[href^="http://example.com/"]‘)

soup.select(‘a[href$="tillie"]‘)

soup.select(‘a[href*=".com/el"]‘)


from bs4.element import Tag

def default_candidate_generator(tag):
    for child in tag.descendants:
        if not isinstance(child, Tag):
            continue
        if not child.has_attr(‘href‘):
            continue
        yield child

tags = soup.find(‘body‘).select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator)
print(type(tags), tags)

from bs4.element import Tag
def default_candidate_generator(tag):
    for child in tag.descendants:
        if not isinstance(child, Tag):
            continue
        if not child.has_attr(‘href‘):
            continue
        yield child

tags = soup.find(‘body‘).select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator, limit=1)
print(type(tags), tags)

19. 标签的内容

# tag = soup.find(‘span‘)
# print(tag.string)          # 获取
# tag.string = ‘new content‘ # 设置
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# print(tag.string)
# tag.string = ‘xxx‘
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# v = tag.stripped_strings  # 递归内部获取所有标签的文本
# print(v)

20.append在当前标签内部追加一个标签

# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# tag.append(soup.find(‘a‘))
# print(soup)
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name=‘i‘,attrs={‘id‘: ‘it‘})
# obj.string = ‘我是一个新来的‘
# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# tag.append(obj)
# print(soup)

21.insert在当前标签内部指定位置插入一个标签

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name=‘i‘, attrs={‘id‘: ‘it‘})
# obj.string = ‘我是一个新来的‘
# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# tag.insert(2, obj)
# print(soup)

22. insert_after,insert_before 在当前标签后面或前面插入

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name=‘i‘, attrs={‘id‘: ‘it‘})
# obj.string = ‘我是一个新来的‘
# tag = soup.find(‘body‘)
# # tag.insert_before(obj)
# tag.insert_after(obj)
# print(soup)

23. replace_with 在当前标签替换为指定标签

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name=‘i‘, attrs={‘id‘: ‘it‘})
# obj.string = ‘我是一个新来的‘
# tag = soup.find(‘div‘)
# tag.replace_with(obj)
# print(soup)

24. 创建标签之间的关系

# tag = soup.find(‘div‘)
# a = soup.find(‘a‘)
# tag.setup(previous_sibling=a)
# print(tag.previous_sibling)

25. wrap,将指定标签把当前标签包裹起来

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj1 = Tag(name=‘div‘, attrs={‘id‘: ‘it‘})
# obj1.string = ‘我是一个新来的‘
#
# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.wrap(obj1)
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.wrap(soup.find(‘p‘))
# print(soup)

26. unwrap,去掉当前标签,将保留其包裹的标签

# tag = soup.find(‘a‘)
# v = tag.unwrap()
# print(soup)

更多参数官方:http://beautifulsoup.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/v4.4.0/

一大波"自动登陆"示例

技术分享图片
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import requests


# ############## 方式一 ##############
"""
# ## 1、首先登陆任何页面,获取cookie
i1 = requests.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")
i1_cookies = i1.cookies.get_dict()

# ## 2、用户登陆,携带上一次的cookie,后台对cookie中的 gpsd 进行授权
i2 = requests.post(
    url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
    data={
        ‘phone‘: "8615131255089",
        ‘password‘: "xxooxxoo",
        ‘oneMonth‘: ""
    },
    cookies=i1_cookies
)

# ## 3、点赞(只需要携带已经被授权的gpsd即可)
gpsd = i1_cookies[‘gpsd‘]
i3 = requests.post(
    url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589523",
    cookies={‘gpsd‘: gpsd}
)

print(i3.text)
"""


# ############## 方式二 ##############
"""
import requests

session = requests.Session()
i1 = session.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")
i2 = session.post(
    url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
    data={
        ‘phone‘: "8615131255089",
        ‘password‘: "xxooxxoo",
        ‘oneMonth‘: ""
    }
)
i3 = session.post(
    url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589523"
)
print(i3.text)

"""
抽屉新热榜
技术分享图片
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

# ############## 方式一 ##############
#
# # 1. 访问登陆页面,获取 authenticity_token
# i1 = requests.get(‘https://github.com/login‘)
# soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, features=‘lxml‘)
# tag = soup1.find(name=‘input‘, attrs={‘name‘: ‘authenticity_token‘})
# authenticity_token = tag.get(‘value‘)
# c1 = i1.cookies.get_dict()
# i1.close()
#
# # 1. 携带authenticity_token和用户名密码等信息,发送用户验证
# form_data = {
# "authenticity_token": authenticity_token,
#     "utf8": "",
#     "commit": "Sign in",
#     "login": "[email protected]",
#     ‘password‘: ‘xxoo‘
# }
#
# i2 = requests.post(‘https://github.com/session‘, data=form_data, cookies=c1)
# c2 = i2.cookies.get_dict()
# c1.update(c2)
# i3 = requests.get(‘https://github.com/settings/repositories‘, cookies=c1)
#
# soup3 = BeautifulSoup(i3.text, features=‘lxml‘)
# list_group = soup3.find(name=‘div‘, class_=‘listgroup‘)
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
#
# for child in list_group.children:
#     if isinstance(child, Tag):
#         project_tag = child.find(name=‘a‘, class_=‘mr-1‘)
#         size_tag = child.find(name=‘small‘)
#         temp = "项目:%s(%s); 项目路径:%s" % (project_tag.get(‘href‘), size_tag.string, project_tag.string, )
#         print(temp)



# ############## 方式二 ##############
# session = requests.Session()
# # 1. 访问登陆页面,获取 authenticity_token
# i1 = session.get(‘https://github.com/login‘)
# soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, features=‘lxml‘)
# tag = soup1.find(name=‘input‘, attrs={‘name‘: ‘authenticity_token‘})
# authenticity_token = tag.get(‘value‘)
# c1 = i1.cookies.get_dict()
# i1.close()
#
# # 1. 携带authenticity_token和用户名密码等信息,发送用户验证
# form_data = {
#     "authenticity_token": authenticity_token,
#     "utf8": "",
#     "commit": "Sign in",
#     "login": "[email protected]",
#     ‘password‘: ‘xxoo‘
# }
#
# i2 = session.post(‘https://github.com/session‘, data=form_data)
# c2 = i2.cookies.get_dict()
# c1.update(c2)
# i3 = session.get(‘https://github.com/settings/repositories‘)
#
# soup3 = BeautifulSoup(i3.text, features=‘lxml‘)
# list_group = soup3.find(name=‘div‘, class_=‘listgroup‘)
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
#
# for child in list_group.children:
#     if isinstance(child, Tag):
#         project_tag = child.find(name=‘a‘, class_=‘mr-1‘)
#         size_tag = child.find(name=‘small‘)
#         temp = "项目:%s(%s); 项目路径:%s" % (project_tag.get(‘href‘), size_tag.string, project_tag.string, )
#         print(temp)
github
技术分享图片
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import time

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

session = requests.Session()

i1 = session.get(
    url=https://www.zhihu.com/#signin,
    headers={
        User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36,
    }
)

soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, lxml)
xsrf_tag = soup1.find(name=input, attrs={name: _xsrf})
xsrf = xsrf_tag.get(value)

current_time = time.time()
i2 = session.get(
    url=https://www.zhihu.com/captcha.gif,
    params={r: current_time, type: login},
    headers={
        User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36,
    })

with open(zhihu.gif, wb) as f:
    f.write(i2.content)

captcha = input(请打开zhihu.gif文件,查看并输入验证码:)
form_data = {
    "_xsrf": xsrf,
    password: xxooxxoo,
    "captcha": captcha,
    email: [email protected]
}
i3 = session.post(
    url=https://www.zhihu.com/login/email,
    data=form_data,
    headers={
        User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36,
    }
)

i4 = session.get(
    url=https://www.zhihu.com/settings/profile,
    headers={
        User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36,
    }
)

soup4 = BeautifulSoup(i4.text, lxml)
tag = soup4.find(id=rename-section)
nick_name = tag.find(span,class_=name).string
print(nick_name)
知乎
技术分享图片
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import re
import json
import base64

import rsa
import requests


def js_encrypt(text):
    b64der = MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQCp0wHYbg/NOPO3nzMD3dndwS0MccuMeXCHgVlGOoYyFwLdS24Im2e7YyhB0wrUsyYf0/nhzCzBK8ZC9eCWqd0aHbdgOQT6CuFQBMjbyGYvlVYU2ZP7kG9Ft6YV6oc9ambuO7nPZh+bvXH0zDKfi02prknrScAKC0XhadTHT3Al0QIDAQAB
    der = base64.standard_b64decode(b64der)

    pk = rsa.PublicKey.load_pkcs1_openssl_der(der)
    v1 = rsa.encrypt(bytes(text, utf8), pk)
    value = base64.encodebytes(v1).replace(b\n, b‘‘)
    value = value.decode(utf8)

    return value


session = requests.Session()

i1 = session.get(https://passport.cnblogs.com/user/signin)
rep = re.compile("‘VerificationToken‘: ‘(.*)‘")
v = re.search(rep, i1.text)
verification_token = v.group(1)

form_data = {
    input1: js_encrypt(wptawy),
    input2: js_encrypt(asdfasdf),
    remember: False
}

i2 = session.post(url=https://passport.cnblogs.com/user/signin,
                  data=json.dumps(form_data),
                  headers={
                      Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8,
                      X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest,
                      VerificationToken: verification_token}
                  )

i3 = session.get(url=https://i.cnblogs.com/EditDiary.aspx)

print(i3.text)
博客园
技术分享图片
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import requests


# 第一步:访问登陆页,拿到X_Anti_Forge_Token,X_Anti_Forge_Code
# 1、请求url:https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.html
# 2、请求方法:GET
# 3、请求头:
#    User-agent
r1 = requests.get(https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.html,
                 headers={
                     User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/63.0.3239.132 Safari/537.36,
                 },
                 )

X_Anti_Forge_Token = re.findall("X_Anti_Forge_Token = ‘(.*?)‘", r1.text, re.S)[0]
X_Anti_Forge_Code = re.findall("X_Anti_Forge_Code = ‘(.*?)‘", r1.text, re.S)[0]
print(X_Anti_Forge_Token, X_Anti_Forge_Code)
# print(r1.cookies.get_dict())
# 第二步:登陆
# 1、请求url:https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.json
# 2、请求方法:POST
# 3、请求头:
#    cookie
#    User-agent
#    Referer:https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.html
#    X-Anit-Forge-Code:53165984
#    X-Anit-Forge-Token:3b6a2f62-80f0-428b-8efb-ef72fc100d78
#    X-Requested-With:XMLHttpRequest
# 4、请求体:
# isValidate:true
# username:15131252215
# password:ab18d270d7126ea65915c50288c22c0d
# request_form_verifyCode:‘‘
# submit:‘‘
r2 = requests.post(
    https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.json,
    headers={
        User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/63.0.3239.132 Safari/537.36,
        Referer: https://passport.lagou.com/login/login.html,
        X-Anit-Forge-Code: X_Anti_Forge_Code,
        X-Anit-Forge-Token: X_Anti_Forge_Token,
        X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
    },
    data={
        "isValidate": True,
        username: 15131255089,
        password: ab18d270d7126ea65915c50288c22c0d,
        request_form_verifyCode: ‘‘,
        submit: ‘‘
    },
    cookies=r1.cookies.get_dict()
)
print(r2.text)
拉勾网

requests+BeautifulSoup详解

标签:bytes   class   loaded   context   ssi   agent   分享   dir   文档   

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/jiangchunsheng/p/9226829.html

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