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yum 程序包管理简介

时间:2020-02-16 10:20:23      阅读:53      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

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rpm可以实现程序的快速,简单安装(跟编译安装比),但是rpm自己不能解决依赖,所以很多工具为了自动解决依赖应运而生,其中yum就是其中之一。

yum解决依赖的办法:

  • 必须有个文件服务器,里面放置所以的rpm包,以及包的相关元数据(-qi,-qR得到的数据)。元数据可以使用createrepo来创建。并放置在repodata目录下。

    这个文件服务器可以使用ftp,http,nfs协议来传输数据,也可以使用file:///(本地服务)。

  • 客户端使用yum程序,安装程序包。安装时,查询文件服务器,自己从文件服务器找依赖,并安装。

yum是一个程序,查看本机是否安装了yum:

# rpm -q yum
yum-3.4.3-161.el7.centos.noarch

查看yum程序所使用的配置文件:

/etc/yum.conf是主配置文件,它里面引用了目录/etc/yum.repos.d/,所以/etc/yum.repos.d/目录下的*.repo也是yum的配置文件.它提供了所以仓库的公共配置。

实现了把配置文件分割成了许多独立的小的配置文件。

/etc/yum.repos.d/目录下的*.repo:为仓库的指向提供配置信息。

# rpm -qc yum
/etc/logrotate.d/yum#log用
/etc/yum.conf
/etc/yum/version-groups.conf#版本控制

/etc/yum.conf内容:

[main]
cachedir=/var/cache/yum/$basearch/$releasever
keepcache=0
debuglevel=2
logfile=/var/log/yum.log
exactarch=1
obsoletes=1
gpgcheck=1
plugins=1
installonly_limit=5
bugtracker_url=http://bugs.centos.org/set_project.php?project_id=23&ref=http://bugs.centos.org/bug_report_page.php?category=yum
distroverpkg=centos-release


#  This is the default, if you make this bigger yum won't see if the metadata
# is newer on the remote and so you'll "gain" the bandwidth of not having to
# download the new metadata and "pay" for it by yum not having correct
# information.
#  It is esp. important, to have correct metadata, for distributions like
# Fedora which don't keep old packages around. If you don't like this checking
# interupting your command line usage, it's much better to have something
# manually check the metadata once an hour (yum-updatesd will do this).
# metadata_expire=90m

# PUT YOUR REPOS HERE OR IN separate files named file.repo
# in /etc/yum.repos.d

[main]:主配置,相当于程序的指向入口

cachedir:缓存路径
keepcache:是否保持缓存
debuglevel:调试级别
logfile:日志文件
exactarch:是否做精确匹配。如果OS是centos7,当找到的rpm包,既有centos6的也有centos7的,如果此处的值是1,则选择centos7的。

gpgcheck:安装时,是否检查完整性和来源合法性。1则检查

plugins:yum是否支持插件。1则支持

使用whatis查看是否有man帮助。

# whatis yum.conf
yum.conf (5)         - Configuration file for yum(8).

使用:man 5 yum.conf可以得到详细的yum.conf配置文件的详细帮助。

仓库指向的定义

  • [repositoryid]:仓库的id

  • name=仓库的名字

  • baseurl=url://path/to/repository/:仓库在哪里,地址可以有多个,那么选哪个呢?根据failovermethod选。

    baseurl=url://server1/path/to/repository/

? url://server2/path/to/repository/
url://server3/path/to/repository/

  • failovermethod={roundrobin|priority}。默认为roundrobin,意味随机选一个url
  • gpgcheck={1|0}:1则检查。默认是1.
  • enabled={1|0}:是否使用此repo
  • gpgkey=URL:公钥
  • enablegroups={1|0}:1则使用组功能。默认是1.
  • const=默认是1000.有多个符合就选cost小的。

centos7下/etc/yum.repos.d/下的repo配置文件有几个,只有CentOS-Base.repo文件里repo的enabled是1,也就是可以使用状态,其余的配置文件里的repo的enabled都是0.

# ls /etc/yum.repos.d/
CentOS-Base.repo           CentOS-CR.repo         CentOS-fasttrack.repo  CentOS-Sources.repo
CentOS-Base.repo_20191129  CentOS-Debuginfo.repo  CentOS-Media.repo      CentOS-Vault.repo

查看配置文件:/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo的内容。

[base]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

#released updates
[updates]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates
baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

#additional packages that may be useful
[extras]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
[centosplus]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
#mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

指定baseurl的技巧:指到repodata所在的网页的URL。

上面的updates的baseurl的值就是下图的网页地址栏的URL。理由是repodata在这里。

技术图片

查看repo list:

# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
repo id                                                     repo name                                                     status
!base/7/x86_64                                              CentOS-7 - Base                                               10,097
!extras/7/x86_64                                            CentOS-7 - Extras                                                323
!updates/7/x86_64                                           CentOS-7 - Updates                                             1,446
repolist: 11,866

repo id:

repo name:是配置文件/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo里的name的值

status:这个repo里的rmp包的数量。

yum命令介绍

yum [options][command] [package ...]

  • 显示repo(仓库)列表(list):repolist [all|enabled|disabled]

    • all:显示全部
    • enabled:显示可用的。默认值。就是本地repo配置文件里enabled=1的repo会显示出来。
    • disabled:显示不可用的。就是本地repo配置文件里enabled=0的repo会显示出来。
    # yum repolist all
    # yum repolist enabled
    # yum repolist disabled
  • 显示指定repo里有哪些rpm包:yum list [all | glob_exp1] [glob_exp2] [...]

    显示所有的包:

    # yum list

    可以使用glob_exp。

    显示内容的第三列:repo配置文件中的repoid

    # yum list php*
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    Available Packages
    php.x86_64                  5.4.16-46.1.el7_7            updates
    php-bcmath.x86_64           5.4.16-46.1.el7_7            updates
    php-pear.noarch             1:1.9.4-21.el7               base
    php-pecl-memcache.x86_64    3.0.8-4.el7                  base

    显示repo中还未安装的包:yum list available [glob_exp1][...]

    # yum list available

    显示repo中的可以升级的包:yum list updates [glob_exp1][...]

    # yum list updates

    显示已经安装的包:yum list installed [glob_exp1][...]

    • @anaconda:安装系统时,安装的包。
    • installed:后来自己安装的。
    # yum list installed
    zlib.x86_64              1.2.7-18.el7                        @anaconda
    zsh.x86_64               5.0.2-33.el7                        installed

    显示已经安装了的extra repo中的包:yum list extras [glob_exp1][...]

    # yum list extras

    显示已经安装的包,哪些已经废弃了:yum list distro-extras [glob_exp1][...]

    # yum list distro-extras
  • 安装包:yum install package1 [package2

    如果repo里有多个版本,可以指定版本,例如:yum install gcc-4.8.5

    也可以不指定版本,则安装最新版:yum install gcc

  • 升级包:yum update [package1][package2] [...]

    # yum update gcc
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    No packages marked for update
  • 降级:downgrade package1 [package2][...]

    类似:rpm -Uvh --oldpackage

  • 重新覆盖安装:reinstall package1 [package2][...]

    类似:rpm -ivh --replacepkgs

  • 检查有哪些包可以升级:yum check-update

  • 卸载包:yum remove | erase package1 [package2][...]

    当卸载的包,被别的包依赖时,别的包也一并被卸载

    卸载cpp:由于gcc依赖于cpp,所有如果卸载cpp,则gcc也会被卸载。

  • 查看包的信息:yum info [glob_exp1][...]

    类似rpm -qi

    # yum info gcc
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    Installed Packages
    Name        : gcc
    Arch        : x86_64
    Version     : 4.8.5
    Release     : 39.el7
    Size        : 37 M
    Repo        : installed
    From repo   : base
    Summary     : Various compilers (C, C++, Objective-C, Java, ...)
    URL         : http://gcc.gnu.org
    License     : GPLv3+ and GPLv3+ with exceptions and GPLv2+ with exceptions and LGPLv2+ and BSD
    Description : The gcc package contains the GNU Compiler Collection version 4.8.
                : You'll need this package in order to compile C code
  • 查看程序或文件是有哪个包提供的:yum provides | whatprovides feature1 [feature2

    类似rpm -qf file

    # yum provides /usr/bin/gcc
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    gcc-4.8.5-39.el7.x86_64 : Various compilers (C, C++, Objective-C, Java, ...)
    Repo        : base
    Matched from:
    Filename    : /usr/bin/gcc
    
    gcc-4.8.5-39.el7.x86_64 : Various compilers (C, C++, Objective-C, Java, ...)
    Repo        : @base
    Matched from:
    Filename    : /usr/bin/gcc
  • 清除元数据文件在本地的缓存:clean [ packages | metadata | expire-cache | rpmdb | plugins | all ]

    yum按文件时,会把程序包和元数据文件缓存在本地,当安装结束,yum会删除程序包文件,但是不会删除 元数据文件。

  • 构建缓存:yum makecache [fast]

  • 用关键字搜索信息:yum search string1 [string2][...]

    从包名和包的summary里搜索指定的关键字。

    # yum search bash
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    ====================================================== N/S matched: bash =======================================================
    bash-completion.noarch : Programmable completion for Bash
    bash-doc.x86_64 : Documentation files for bash
    libguestfs-bash-completion.noarch : Bash tab-completion scripts for libguestfs tools
    libvirt-bash-completion.x86_64 : Bash completion script
    pcp-pmda-bash.x86_64 : Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) metrics for the Bash shell
    bash.x86_64 : The GNU Bourne Again shell
    
      Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
  • 显示某个包所依赖的包:deplist package1 [package2][...]

    # yum deplist gcc
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    package: gcc.x86_64 4.8.5-39.el7
      dependency: /bin/sh
       provider: bash.x86_64 4.2.46-33.el7
      dependency: /sbin/install-info
       provider: info.x86_64 5.1-5.el7
    ...
  • 查看yum的安装,更新,卸载的历史:yum history不带参数则是history list

    history [info|list|packages-list|packages-info|summary|addon-info|redo|undo|rollback|new|sync|stats]

    # yum history
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    ID     | Login user               | Date and time    | Action(s)      | Altered
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         5 | root <root>              | 2020-02-15 23:00 | Install        |    2
         4 | root <root>              | 2020-02-15 22:59 | Erase          |    8
         3 | root <root>              | 2020-02-15 22:48 | Update         |   11  <
         2 | ys <ys>                  | 2019-11-29 17:38 | Install        |    8 >
         1 | System <unset>           | 2019-11-29 16:44 | Install        | 1458
    history list

    上面是汇总的信息,如果想看id为5的详细信息,也就是id为5的安装了哪些包,则使用:

    # yum history info 5
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    Transaction ID : 5
    Begin time     : Sat Feb 15 23:00:14 2020
    Begin rpmdb    : 1459:fe9d7def2a5edd098cfe39ebe0732b67038170b5
    End time       :            23:00:19 2020 (5 seconds)
    End rpmdb      : 1461:ed3657ce694e0e90ea8bf62a092f06422c81ac28
    User           : root <root>
    Return-Code    : Success
    Command Line   : install gcc
    Transaction performed with:
        Installed     rpm-4.11.3-35.el7.x86_64                      @anaconda
        Installed     yum-3.4.3-161.el7.centos.noarch               @anaconda
        Installed     yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-50.el7.noarch @anaconda
    Packages Altered:
        Dep-Install cpp-4.8.5-39.el7.x86_64 @base
        Install     gcc-4.8.5-39.el7.x86_64 @base
    history info

    查看yumdb大小:

    # yum history stats
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
    File        : //var/lib/yum/history/history-2020-02-16.sqlite
    Size        : 23,552
    Transactions: 0
    history stats
  • 本地安装/升级:想安装的包在yum repo中没有,可以下载一个rpm包安装。但为什么不用rpm呢,因为rpm不能解决依赖,而yum可以,所以即使是本地的rpm包,也可以使用yum安装,但是参数是rpm文件名。

    localinstall/localupdate是为了兼容以前的版本,应该使用intall/update 参数是rpm文件名。

    • localinstall rpmfile1 [rpmfile2][...]

    ? (maintained for legacy reasons only - use install)

    • localupdate rpmfile1 [rpmfile2][...]

    ? (maintained for legacy reasons only - use update)

  • 组安装/更新/卸载/查看

    • 查看有哪些组可供安装:

      # yum groups list
      Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
      Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
      Available Environment Groups:
         Minimal Install
         Compute Node
         Infrastructure Server
         File and Print Server
         Basic Web Server
         Virtualization Host
         Server with GUI
         GNOME Desktop
         KDE Plasma Workspaces
         Development and Creative Workstation
      Installed Groups:
         Development Tools
      Available Groups:
         Compatibility Libraries
         Console Internet Tools
         Graphical Administration Tools
         Legacy UNIX Compatibility
         Scientific Support
         Security Tools
         Smart Card Support
         System Administration Tools
         System Management
      Done
    • 查看某个组里有哪些包:

      # yum groups info Development\ Tools
      Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
      Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
      
      Group: Development Tools
       Group-Id: development
       Description: A basic development environment.
       Mandatory Packages:
          gcc
         =gcc-c++
          gettext
         =libtool
          make
       Default Packages:
          byacc
         =gcc-gfortran
          swig
         =systemtap
       Optional Packages:
         ElectricFence
         ant
         babel
         bzr

      Mandatory Packages:必须安装的包

      Default Packages:默认安装的包

      Optional Packages:可选安装的包

    • 安装:

      # yum groups install "Development Tools"
    • 更新:

      # yum groups update "Development Tools"
      Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
      Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
      Maybe run: yum groups mark install (see man yum)
      No packages in any requested group available to install or updates
    • 删除:

      # yum groups remove Development\ Tools

拿光盘作为repo

1,先挂载centos系统安装盘到/media目录。

2,创建文件local.repo

[base]
name=local repo centos
baseurl=file:///media/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0

3,然后就可以正常使用yum命令了。

c/c++ 学习互助QQ群:877684253

技术图片

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yum 程序包管理简介

标签:tar   local   降级   http   cond   zsh   history   report   and   

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoshiwang/p/12315812.html

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